On the history of the D. O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
The Institute was opened on September 21, 1797 at the Emperor?s Lying-in Hospital on the initiative and under the auspices of Empress Maria Fyodorovna with the participation of Nestor M. Maximovich-Ambodik, a great Russian doctor-encyclopedist, the founder of Russian midwifery.
This Institute was the first obstetrical as well as educational and scientific establishment not only in Russia, but also in Europe and in the world, it was specially intended to render aid to pregnant women and their infants and to train qualified specialists in obstetrics. It included a lying-in hospital for 20 beds and a school for training 22 midwives. During the first 30 years 512 pupils were taught and trained in obstetrics much more than in all other institutions of that kind.
After death of the foundress in 1828 the Institute became state-owned but the auspices of the Romanovs? House remained up to1917. Later on the Institute was reorganized after 1893 when Professor D. O. Ott was appointed its Director.
In 1897 when centenary of the Institute was celebrated Professor Ott succeeded in obtaining means to construct a new building designed by the famous architect L. N. Benois. In 1904 the construction of well equipped clinical and laboratory buildings was completed.
In 1989 owing to the insistency of the present Director, Academician Edward K. Ailamazyan, the Institute was officially named after D. O. Ott.
The achievements of the Institute?s scientists are in the treasure-house of home and world medicine, they made valuable contribution to the glory of Russian science. Obstertrical forceps were first applied here in Russia; long before I. Zemmelweiss methods of antiseptics and isolation to prevent puerperal fever were empirically substantiated and implemented; efficient ways to protect perineum were suggested; episiotomy and median perineotomy were practically adopted; a technique of perineorrhaphy was devised; numerous facilities and instruments were designed that are still used in labor rooms. The scientists of the Institute were the first to use narcosis for long-continued anesthesia during labor. Of great value are the investigations showing peculiarities of the labor course and management in cases of pelvic presentation, narrow pelvis as well as the unified terminology connected with this pathology. The medical museum at the Institute has a great collection of female pelves, the number of exhibits is the third in the world.
Prophylactic method suggested by V.V.Stroganov for the treatment of eclampsia won the world-wide recognition, in his life-time the scientist was called a «mankind saviour». Here in the Institute D. P. Brovkin worked out a scheme for treating late pregnancy toxemia with magnesium sulfate, the «Nikolayev triad» was offered for the treatment of intrauterine fetal hypoxia. The theory of P.G.Svetlov on critical periods of embryogenesis was recognized in the whole world. N. L. Garmasheva?s idea of treating a fetus as a patient laid the foundations of new branches of science and health care such as perinatology and perinatal medicine. Here for the first time in Russia a complex of measures to help patients with sex-linked disorders was carried out (the necessary surgical intervention in changing sex, hormonal correction, psychological support).